Various models can be used in customer journey analysis, whereby all models have their strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, it is important to define the exact interest in knowledge in advance in order to be able to select a suitable model. Therefore, you should decide in advance whether you want to look at the purchase process alone or also the post-purchase phase. This will then lead to the selection of the appropriate customer journey model for you and you can begin with the analysis.
The AIDA model
The AIDA model is said to have been described for the first time as early as 1898 by advertising pioneer Elmo Lewis and is thus considered the first advertising effectiveness model. To this day, it is one of the basic principles of marketing and is used, for example, for customer journey analyses. This is because the four phases of the AIDA model allow the potential buying process of a potential customer to be traced in detail.
The four phases of the AIDA model:
- ATTENTION: Attract the attention of the potential customer. This step can be done through various types of advertising, both online and offline. But the goal is always the same: to arouse interest so that the customer will take a closer look at the product or service on offer.
- INTEREST: To increase the customer's interest in the product or service. As soon as the customer becomes more closely involved with the areas of application and the benefits of the product or service on offer, the advertising measures and content provided can be designed in a more targeted manner.
- DESIRE: Encourage the customer to buy. The desire is awakened in the customer to make use of the service presented or to buy the product. This happens via an intensive discussion and catchy advertising promises or information about the product, which convince the customer.
- ACTION: The customer buys the product. The last step of the AIDA model reflects the final action of the customer, i.e. his purchase.
The AIDA model thus represents the most important four phases of a classic customer journey. This strategy is particularly helpful when building marketing strategies that start from individual contact points and are represented as a funnel.
Weaknesses of the AIDA model
In the classic AIDA model, the focus is on the company and less on the customer perspective. Therefore, some marketing strategies cannot be implemented in the best possible way. In addition, the customer journey in this model necessarily ends with a purchase and thus excludes the specific characteristics of existing customers as well as their influence on new customers. Thus, it is more a theory of the purchase decision process, i.e. a Buyer Journey, than a Customer Journey.
The classic 5-step model
The classic 5-step model builds on the AIDA model, but also takes into account the touch points in the post-purchase phase. Particularly in our industries, we sometimes have only a few points of contact with potential customers. It is therefore particularly important here to use all possible touch points, including in the post-purchase phase, and to shape them positively through successful digital customer communication.
The 5 steps of the customer journey model:
- AWARENESS: The customer becomes aware of the product through well-placed advertising or recommendations.
- CONSIDERATION: There is an initial interest, which is why the customer finds out more about the product.
- PURCHASE: The customer makes a purchase decision.
- RETENTION: The customer gains experience with the product/service and forms an opinion. In this phase, companies must ensure that customers do not lose interest by communicating specifically with existing customers. Retention can also be targeted in difficult situations such as reminders or collection procedures.
- ADVOCACY: After targeted retention, the customer becomes a regular customer and recommends the brand, service or product to others.
For the analysis of the customer journey, the 5-step model therefore means a sustainable preparation of all possible touch points. By intensifying customer contact in the post-purchase phase, the opportunity arises not only for satisfied regular customers, but also for new customers who are won through recommendation.